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Advanced Topics

The following items discuss topics that are a bit beyond the basic use cases of the Application Functions SDK when interacting with EdgeX.

Configurable Functions Pipeline

This SDK provides the capability to define the functions pipeline via configuration rather than code by using the app-service-configurable application service. See the App Service Configurable section for more details.

Custom REST Endpoints

It is not uncommon to require your own custom REST endpoints when building an Application Service. Rather than spin up your own webserver inside of your app (alongside the already existing running webserver), we've exposed a method that allows you add your own routes to the existing webserver. A few routes are reserved and cannot be used:

  • /api/v2/version
  • /api/v2/ping
  • /api/v2/metrics
  • /api/v2/config
  • /api/v2/trigger
  • /api/v2/secret

To add your own route, use the AddRoute() API provided on the ApplicationService interface.

Example - Add Custom REST route

myhandler := func(writer http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {    
  service := req.Context().Value(interfaces.AppServiceContextKey).(interfaces.ApplicationService)    
  writer.Header().Set("Content-Type", "text/plain")   

service := pkg.NewAppService(serviceKey)    
service.AddRoute("/myroute", myHandler, "GET")    

Under the hood, this simply adds the provided route, handler, and method to the gorilla mux.Router used in the SDK. For more information on gorilla mux you can check out the github repo here. You can access the interfaces.ApplicationService API for resources such as the logging client by pulling it from the context as shown above -- this is useful for when your routes might not be defined in your main.go where you have access to the interfaces.ApplicationService instance.

Target Type

The target type is the object type of the incoming data that is sent to the first function in the function pipeline. By default this is an EdgeX dtos.Event since typical usage is receiving Events from the EdgeX MessageBus.

There are scenarios where the incoming data is not an EdgeX Event. One example scenario is two application services are chained via the EdgeX MessageBus. The output of the first service is inference data from analyzing the original Eventdata, and published back to the EdgeX MessageBus. The second service needs to be able to let the SDK know the target type of the input data it is expecting.

For usages where the incoming data is not events, the TargetType of the expected incoming data can be set when the ApplicationService instance is created using the NewAppServiceWithTargetType() factory function.

Example - Set and use custom Target Type

type Person struct {    
  FirstName string `json:"first_name"`    
  LastName  string `json:"last_name"`    

service := pkg.NewAppServiceWithTargetType(serviceKey, &Person{})    

TargetType must be set to a pointer to an instance of your target type such as &Person{} . The first function in your function pipeline will be passed an instance of your target type, not a pointer to it. In the example above, the first function in the pipeline would start something like:

func MyPersonFunction(ctx interfaces.AppFunctionContext, data interface{}) (bool, interface{}) {    

  ctx.LoggingClient().Debug("MyPersonFunction executing")

  if data == nil {
    return false, errors.New("no data received to     MyPersonFunction")

  person, ok := data.(Person)
  if !ok {
    return false, errors.New("MyPersonFunction type received is not a Person")

// ....

The SDK supports un-marshaling JSON or CBOR encoded data into an instance of the target type. If your incoming data is not JSON or CBOR encoded, you then need to set the TargetType to &[]byte.

If the target type is set to &[]byte the incoming data will not be un-marshaled. The content type, if set, will be set on the interfaces.AppFunctionContext and can be access via the InputContentType() API. Your first function will be responsible for decoding the data or not.

Command Line Options

See the Common Command Line Options for the set of command line options common to all EdgeX services. The following command line options are specific to Application Services.

Skip Version Check


Indicates the service should skip the Core Service's version compatibility check.

Service Key


Sets the service key that is used with Registry, Configuration Provider and security services. The default service key is set by the application service. If the name provided contains the placeholder text <profile>, this text will be replaced with the name of the profile used. If profile is not set, the <profile> text is simply removed

Can be overridden with EDGEX_SERVICE_KEY environment variable.

Environment Variables

See the Common Environment Variables section for the list of environment variables common to all EdgeX Services. The remaining in this section are specific to Application Services.


This environment variable overrides the -sk/--serviceKey command-line option and the default set by the application service.


If the name provided contains the text <profile>, this text will be replaced with the name of the profile used.

Example - Service Key

EDGEX_SERVICE_KEY: app-<profile>-mycloud
profile: http-export
then service key will be app-http-export-mycloud

EdgeX 2.0

The deprecated lowercase `edgex_service environment variable specific have been removed for EdgeX 2.0

Custom Configuration

Applications can specify custom configuration in the TOML file in two ways.

Application Settings

The first simple way is to add items to the ApplicationSetting section. This is a map of string key/value pairs, i.e. map[string]string. Use for simple string values or comma separated list of string values. The ApplicationService API provides the follow access APIs for this configuration section:

  • ApplicationSettings() map[string]string
    • Returns the whole list of application settings
  • GetAppSetting(setting string) (string, error)
    • Returns single entry from the map who's key matches the passed in setting value
  • GetAppSettingStrings(setting string) ([]string, error)
    • Returns list of strings for the entry who's key matches the passed in setting value. The Entry is assumed to be a comma separated list of strings.

Structure Custom Configuration

EdgeX 2.0

Structure Custom Configuration is new for Edgex 2.0

The second is the more complex Structured Custom Configuration which allows the Application Service to define and watch it's own structured section in the service's TOML configuration file.

The ApplicationService API provides the follow APIs to enable structured custom configuration:

  • LoadCustomConfig(config UpdatableConfig, sectionName string) error

    • Loads the service's custom configuration from local file or the Configuration Provider (if enabled). The Configuration Provider will also be seeded with the custom configuration the first time the service is started, if service is using the Configuration Provider. The UpdateFromRaw interface will be called on the custom configuration when the configuration is loaded from the Configuration Provider.
  • ListenForCustomConfigChanges(configToWatch interface{}, sectionName string, changedCallback func(interface{})) error

    • Starts a listener on the Configuration Provider for changes to the specified section of the custom configuration. When changes are received from the Configuration Provider the UpdateWritableFromRaw interface will be called on the custom configuration to apply the updates and then signal that the changes occurred via changedCallback.

See the Application Service Template for an example of using the new Structured Custom Configuration capability.

Store and Forward

The Store and Forward capability allows for export functions to persist data on failure and for the export of the data to be retried at a later time.


The order the data exported via this retry mechanism is not guaranteed to be the same order in which the data was initial received from Core Data


Writable.StoreAndForward allows enabling, setting the interval between retries and the max number of retries. If running with Configuration Provider, these setting can be changed on the fly via Consul without having to restart the service.

Example - Store and Forward configuration

Enabled = false
RetryInterval = "5m"
MaxRetryCount = 10


RetryInterval should be at least 1 second (eg. '1s') or greater. If a value less than 1 second is specified, 1 second will be used. Endless retries will occur when MaxRetryCount is set to 0. If MaxRetryCount is set to less than 0, a default of 1 retry will be used.

Database configuration section describes which database type to use and the information required to connect to the database. This section is required if Store and Forward is enabled. It is optional if not using Redis for the EdgeX MessageBus which is now the default.

Example - Database configuration

Type = "redisdb"
Host = "localhost"
Port = 6379
Timeout = "30s"

EdgeX 2.0

Support for Mongo DB has been removed in EdgeX 2.0

How it works

When an export function encounters an error sending data it can call SetRetryData(payload []byte) on the AppFunctionContext. This will store the data for later retry. If the Application Service is stopped and then restarted while stored data hasn't been successfully exported, the export retry will resume once the service is up and running again.


It is important that export functions return an error and stop pipeline execution after the call to SetRetryData. See HTTPPost function in SDK as an example

When the RetryInterval expires, the function pipeline will be re-executed starting with the export function that saved the data. The saved data will be passed to the export function which can then attempt to resend the data.


The export function will receive the data as it was stored, so it is important that any transformation of the data occur in functions prior to the export function. The export function should only export the data that it receives.

One of three out comes can occur after the export retried has completed.

  1. Export retry was successful

    In this case, the stored data is removed from the database and the execution of the pipeline functions after the export function, if any, continues.

  2. Export retry fails and retry count has not been exceeded

    In this case, the stored data is updated in the database with the incremented retry count

  3. Export retry fails and retry count has been exceeded

    In this case, the stored data is removed from the database and never retried again.


Changing Writable.Pipeline.ExecutionOrder will invalidate all currently stored data and result in it all being removed from the database on the next retry. This is because the position of the export function can no longer be guaranteed and no way to ensure it is properly executed on the retry.



All instances of App Services running in secure mode require a SecretStore to be configured. With the use of Redis Pub/Sub as the default EdgeX MessageBus all App Services need the redisdb known secret added to their SecretStore so they can connect to the Secure EdgeX MessageBus. See the Secure MessageBus documentation for more details.

Example - SecretStore configuration

Type = "vault"
Host = "localhost"
Port = 8200
Path = "app-sample/"
Protocol = "http"
RootCaCertPath = ""
ServerName = ""
TokenFile = "/tmp/edgex/secrets/app-sample/secrets-token.json"
  AuthType = "X-Vault-Token"

EdgeX 2.0

For Edgex 2.0 all Application Service Secret Stores are exclusive so the explicit [SecretStoreExclusive] configuration has been removed.

Storing Secrets

Secure Mode

When running an application service in secure mode, secrets can be stored in the SecretStore by making an HTTP POST call to the /api/v2/secret API route in the application service. The secret data POSTed is stored and retrieved from the SecretStore based on values in the [SecretStore] section of the configuration file. Once a secret is stored, only the service that added the secret will be able to retrieve it. For secret retrieval see Getting Secrets section below.

Example - JSON message body

  "path" : "MyPath",
  "secretData" : [
      "key" : "MySecretKey",
      "value" : "MySecretValue"


Path specifies the type or location of the secret in the SecretStore. It is appended to the base path from the [SecretStore] configuration.

Insecure Mode

When running in insecure mode, the secrets are stored and retrieved from the Writable.InsecureSecrets section of the service's configuration toml file. Insecure secrets and their paths can be configured as below.

Example - InsecureSecrets Configuration

        Path = "aws"
          username = "aws-user"
          password = "aws-pw"

        Path = "redisdb"
          username = ""
          password = ""

Getting Secrets

Application Services can retrieve their secrets from their SecretStore using the interfaces.ApplicationService.GetSecret() API or from the interfaces.AppFunctionContext.GetSecret() API

When in secure mode, the secrets are retrieved from the SecretStore based on the [SecretStore] configuration values.

When running in insecure mode, the secrets are retrieved from the [Writable.InsecureSecrets] configuration.

Background Publishing

Application Services using the MessageBus trigger can request a background publisher using the AddBackgroundPublisher API in the SDK. This method takes an int representing the background channel's capacity as the only parameter and returns a reference to a BackgroundPublisher. This reference can then be used by background processes to publish to the configured MessageBus output. A custom topic can be provided to use instead of the configured message bus output as well.

Edgex 2.0

For EdgeX 2.0 the background publish operation takes a full AppContext instead of just the parameters used to create a message envelope. This allows the background publisher to leverage context-based topic formatting functionality as the trigger output.

Example - Background Publisher

func runJob (service interfaces.ApplicationService, done chan struct{}){
    ticker := time.NewTicker(1 * time.Minute)

    //initialize background publisher with a channel capacity of 10 and a custom topic
    publisher, err := service.AddBackgroundPublisherWithTopic(10, "custom-topic")

    if err != nil {
        // do something

    go func(pub interfaces.BackgroundPublisher) {
        for {
            select {
            case <-ticker.C:
                msg := myDataService.GetMessage()
                payload, err := json.Marshal(message)

                if err != nil {
                    //do something

                ctx := svc.BuildContext(uuid.NewString(), common.ContentTypeJSON)

                // modify context as needed

                err = pub.Publish(payload, ctx)

                if err != nil {
                    //do something
            case <-j.done:

 func main() {
    service := pkg.NewAppService(serviceKey)

    done := make(chan struct{})
    defer close(done)

    //pass publisher to your background job
    runJob(service, done)




Stopping the Service

Application Services will listen for SIGTERM / SIGINT signals from the OS and stop the function pipeline in response. The pipeline can also be exited programmatically by calling sdk.MakeItStop() on the running ApplicationService instance. This can be useful for cases where you want to stop a service in response to a runtime condition, e.g. receiving a "poison pill" message through its trigger.

Received Topic

EdgeX 2.0

Received Topic is new for Edgex 2.0

When messages are received via the EdgeX MessageBus or External MQTT triggers, the topic that the data was received on is seeded into the new Context Storage on the AppFunctionContext with the key receivedtopic. This make the Received Topic available to all functions in the pipeline. The SDK provides the interfaces.RECEIVEDTOPIC constant for this key. See the Context Storage section for more details on extracting values.

Pipeline Per Topics

EdgeX 2.1

Pipeline Per Topics is new for EdgeX 2.1

The Pipeline Per Topics feature allows for multiple function pipelines to be defined. Each will execute only when one of the specified pipeline topics matches the received topic. The pipeline topics can have wildcards (#) allowing the topic to match a variety of received topics. Each pipeline has its own set of functions (transforms) that are executed on the received message. If the # wildcard is used by itself for a pipeline topic, it will match all received topics and the specified functions pipeline will execute on every message received.


The Pipeline Per Topics feature is targeted for EdgeX MessageBus and External MQTT triggers, but can be used with Custom or HTTP triggers. When used with the HTTP trigger the incoming topic will always be blank, so the pipeline's topics must contain a single topic set to the # wildcard so that all messages received are processed by the pipeline.

Example pipeline topics with wildcards

"#"                             - Matches all messages received
"edegex/events/#"               - Matches all messages received with the based topic `edegex/events/`
"edegex/events/core/#"          - Matches all messages received just from Core Data
"edegex/events/device/#"        - Matches all messages received just from Device services
"edegex/events/#/my-profile/#"  - Matches all messages received from Core Data or Device services for `my-profile`
"edegex/events/#/#/my-device/#" - Matches all messages received from Core Data or Device services for `my-device`
"edegex/events/#/#/#/my-source" - Matches all messages received from Core Data or Device services for `my-source`

Refer to the Filter By Topics section for details on the structure of the received topic.

All pipeline function capabilities such as Store and Forward, Batching, etc. can be used with one or more of the multiple function pipelines. Store and Forward uses the Pipeline's ID to find and restart the pipeline on retries.

Example - Adding multiple function pipelines

This example adds two pipelines. One to process data from the Random-Float-Device device and one to process data from the Int32 and Int64 sources.

    sample := functions.NewSample()
    err = service.AddFunctionsPipelineForTopics(
    if err != nil {
        return -1

    err = app.service.AddFunctionsPipelineForTopics(
            []string{"edgex/events/#/#/#/Int32", "edgex/events/#/#/#/Int64"},
    if err != nil {
        return -1